Technical Notes

These technical notes cover the photoelectronic testing instruments related theories, such as solar simulators, IV curves, the basic terms of photoelectronic testing filed.

A solar checklist for papers

A solar checklist for papers Nature Publishing Group highly recommends authors of papers related to solar-cell research complete this solar checklist of submitted information to aid the reproducibility and transparency of results. The original article is as follows: Authors of papers related to solar-cell research will now be asked to complete a checklist of submitted information to aid the reproducibility and transparency of results. Following discussion with experts in the ph...

Evaluating standard uncertainty

Evaluating standard uncertainty Modelling the measurement 1.1 In most cases, a measured is not measured Y directly, but is determined from N other quantities through a functional relationship ƒ : NOTE 1 For economy of notation, in thisGuidethe same symbol is used for the physical quantity (the measured) and for the random variable (see 2.1) that represents the possible outcome of an observation of that quantity. When it is stated that Xi has a particular proba...

Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty

Type A evaluation of standard uncertainty 2.1 In most cases, the best available estimate of the expectation or expected value μq of a quantity q that varies randomly [a random variable (A.1)], and for which n independent observations qk have been obtained under the same conditions of measurement (see A.2), is the arithmetic mean or average /q (A.3) of the n observations: Thus,for an input quantity Xi estimated from n independent repeated observations Xik the arithmetic mean ...

Evaluating standard uncertainty 3 - Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty Annex

Type B evaluation of standard uncertainty 3.1 For an estimate xi of an input quantity xi that has not been obtained from repeated observations, the associated estimated variance u2(xi) or the standard uncertainty u(xi) is evaluated by scientific judgement based on all of the available information on the possible variability of xi. The pool of information may include previous measurement data; experience with or general knowledge of the behaviour and properties of relevant materials and instru...

What are the authoritative laboratories for solar energy in the world?

What are the authoritative laboratories for solar energy in the world? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the primary American laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development (R&D). ,NREL established the Solar Energy Research Institute since 1977, which publishes the best research-cell efficiency records obtained worldwide twice a year. NREL plays an important role in the world's PV measurement field. Best Research-Cell Efficiencies (Sourc...

What are the electrical standards around the world?

What are the electrical standards around the world? With the rapid development of the electronic industry, the number of electronic products has significantly progressed. The standardization of product quality benefits the international trade of products. For this reason, the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a global organization for standardization consisting all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The objective of the IEC is to promote intern...

What is Repeatability?

What is Repeatability? Repeatability is one of the most critical factors of the measurement capability of an equipment. In general, the sample will be tested several times, and the result will be calculated from those data thus generate a repeatability, which is shown in percentage. Repeatability shows the stability of the equipment, ensuring every test result is precise without being affected by the environmental noise. Enlitech’s QE/IPCE measurement system has outstanding performances b...