Technical Articles

What are the authoritative laboratories for solar energy in the world?

What are the authoritative laboratories for solar energy in the world? The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) is the primary American laboratory for renewable energy and energy efficiency research and development (R&D). ,NREL established the Solar Energy Research Institute since 1977, which publishes the best research-cell efficiency records obtained worldwide twice a year. NREL plays an important role in the world's PV measurement field. Best Research-Cell Efficiencie...

What are the electrical standards around the world?

What are the electrical standards around the world? With the rapid development of the electronic industry, the number of electronic products has significantly progressed. The standardization of product quality benefits the international trade of products. For this reason, the IEC (International Electrotechnical Commission) is a global organization for standardization consisting all national electrotechnical committees (IEC National Committees). The objective of the IEC is to promote in...

What is Repeatability?

What is Repeatability? Repeatability is one of the most critical factors of the measurement capability of an equipment. In general, the sample will be tested several times, and the result will be calculated from those data thus generate a repeatability, which is shown in percentage. Repeatability shows the stability of the equipment, ensuring every test result is precise without being affected by the environmental noise. Enlitech’s QE/IPCE measurement system has outstanding performa...

What is PL?

What is PL? PL (Photoluminescence) is a non-destructive testing method, in which a substance absorbs high energy incoming photons and then re-emits photons of lower energy. By analyzing the photons emitting from the sample, many key information, such as material characteristics, carrier transmission route, or the carrier lifetime, can be elucidated when examining the PL spectrum. High-efficiency PL measurement systems are critical to the development of the nanomaterials, especially in ...

What are QE and IPCE?

What are QE and IPCE? Quantum Efficiency, or IPCE (Incident Photon-to-electron Conversion Efficiency), is the conversion ratio of the incident photon to electron by a photovoltaic cell. For instance, if there are 100 photons irradiating on the surface of the solar cell and 80 electrons are generated, the Quantum Efficiency of the cell is 80%. Furthermore, because Quantum Efficiency is typically plotted as a curve related to wavelengths, it can also reflect the characteristics under var...