PV testing Basic

Air Mass (AM)

Air Mass (AM) Solar radiation of approximately 6000K is approximately a blackbody radiation. The energy of the radiation that reaches the top of Earth atmosphere is around 1353kW/m2. As it passes through the atmosphere, sunlight is attenuated by scattering and absorption. The more atmosphere sunlight passes, the more energy is attenuated. The spectrum outside the atmosphere is defined as AM0. Air Mass (AM) describes the relation of the length sunlight travels and spectrum and rad...

Getting Started with Measurements of Quantum Efficiency and IV Characteristics, Immediately Understand The Principles of Solar Cell

Solar cell is a device that, when being exposed to sunlight, generates voltage or electric current through photovoltaic effect. Solar cells are made with two types of semiconductors - p-type and n-type-to form a p-n junction. In the junction, electrons move toward the p-type side and holes move towards n-type side. This is where electric field is formed. When sunlight shines on solar cells, the energy of photons excites electrons to its conduction band. At this state, electrons can move freel...

Solar Spectral Irradiance: AM0, AM1.5G, AM1.5D

The American Society for Testing and Materials developed and defined the solar constant 1366.1 W/m2 u (also known as the total sky irradiance) and reference spectrum ASRM E490. This AM0 solar spectral irradiance is based on data from satellites, space shuttle missions, high-altitude aircraft, rocket soundings, ground-based solar telescopes, and modeled spectral irradiance. The reference spectrum ASRM E173 AM1.5G and AM1.5D provides terrestrial uses in simulating and evaluating photovo...

What are QE and IPCE?

What are QE and IPCE? Quantum Efficiency, or IPCE (Incident Photon-to-electron Conversion Efficiency), is the conversion ratio of the incident photon to electron by a photovoltaic cell. For instance, if there are 100 photons irradiating on the surface of the solar cell and 80 electrons are generated, the Quantum Efficiency of the cell is 80%. Furthermore, because Quantum Efficiency is typically plotted as a curve related to wavelengths, it can also reflect the characteristics under variouw...